A new feature of Fortran 90 is that you can work directly with
a whole array or an array section without explicit (or implicit)
`DO`-loops. In the old Fortran you could in some circumstances work
directly with a whole array, but then only during I/O processing.

An array is defined to have a shape, given by its number of dimensions, called "rank", and the extent of each dimension. Two arrays agree if they have the same shape. Operations are normally done element by element. Please note that the rank of an array is the number of dimensions and has nothing to do with the mathematical rank of a matrix!

In the following simple example I show how you can assign matrices
with simple statements like `B = A`, how you can use the intrinsic
matrix multiplication `MATMUL ` and the addition `SUM`,
and how you can use
the array sections
(in the example below I use array sections which are vectors).

PROGRAM ARRAY_EXAMPLE IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER :: I, J REAL, DIMENSION (4,4) :: A, B, C, D, E DO I = 1, 4 ! calculate a test matrix DO J = 1, 4 A(I, J) = (I-1.2)**J END DO END DO B = A*A ! element for element multiplication CALL PRINTF(A,4) ; CALL PRINTF(B,4) C = MATMUL(A, B) ! internal matrix multiplication DO I = 1, 4 ! explicit matrix multiplication DO J = 1, 4 D(I, J) = SUM( A(I,:)*B(:,J) ) END DO END DO CALL PRINTF(C,4) ; CALL PRINTF(D,4) E = C - D ! comparison of the two methods CALL PRINTF(E,4) CONTAINS SUBROUTINE PRINTF(A, N) ! print an array IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER :: N, I REAL, DIMENSION (N, N) :: A DO I = 1, N WRITE(*,' (4E15.6)') A(I,:) END DO WRITE(*,*) ! write the blank line END SUBROUTINE PRINTF END PROGRAM ARRAY_EXAMPLEAs mentioned in chapter 9 about recursion, functions in Fortran 90 can be array valued. In that case the use of the

Fortran 90 has many more possibilities than Fortran 77 permitting the dynamic allocation of memory. In Fortran 77 this could only could be done when a sufficient storage area had been allocated in the calling program unit, and both the array name and the required dimension(s) had to be included as parameters in the call of the subprogram. This is the adjustable array concept. A very simple case is where the last dimension is given simply with a *, or assumed-size array.

Now we also have allocatable arrays, automatic arrays, and assumed-shape arrays. Dynamic allocation using pointers is discussed in a section of the next chapter. An overview is given in Appendix 3 (section 10). Also see Appendix 9 for an explanation of certain terms.

Solution.

Last modified: 6 April 1999